Cotinine is the first-stage metabolite of nicotine, a toxic alkaloid that produces stimulation of the autonomic ganglia and central nervous system when in humans. Nicotine is a drug to which virtually every member of a tobacco-smoking society is exposed whether through direct contact or second-hand inhalation. In addition to tobacco, nicotine is also commercially available as the active ingredient in smoking replacement therapies such as nicotine gum, transdermal patches, and nasal sprays.
In a 24-hour urine, approximately 5% of a nicotine dose is excreted as an unchanged drug with 10% as cotinine and 35% as hydroxy cotinine; the concentrations of other metabolites are believed to account for less than 5%.1 While cotinine is thought to be an inactive metabolite, its elimination profile is more stable than that of nicotine which is largely urine pH dependent. As a result, cotinine is considered a good biological marker for determining nicotine use. The plasma half-life of nicotine is approximately 60 minutes following inhalation or parenteral administration.
【DIRECTIONS FOR CASSETTE USE】
Allow the test, urine specimen, and/or controls to reach room temperature (15-30°C) prior to testing.
1. Bring the pouch to room temperature before opening it. Remove the test cassette from the sealed pouch and use it within one hour.
2. Place the test cassette on a clean and level surface. Hold the dropper vertically and transfer 3 full drops of urine (approx. 120μL) to the specimen well (S) of the test cassette, and then start the timer. Avoid trapping air bubbles in the specimen well (S). See the illustration below.
3. Wait for the colored line(s) to appear. Read results at 5 minutes. Do not interpret the result after 10 minutes.